B. Differentiate between the OSI layers
OSI Model Physical Layer
Figure: Physical Layer Implementations Can Be LAN or WAN Specifications
OSI Model Data Link Layer
Figure: The Data Link Layer Contains Two Sublayers
OSI Model Network Layer
OSI Model Transport Layer
OSI Model Session Layer
OSI Model Presentation Layer
OSI Model Application Layer
Data Link Layer Addresses
Figure: Each Interface on a Device Is Uniquely Identified by a Data-Link Address illustrates how each interface on a device is uniquely identified by a data-link address.
Figure: Each Interface on a Device Is Uniquely Identified by a Data-Link Address
Figure: MAC Addresses, Data-Link Addresses, and the IEEE Sublayers of the Data Link Layer Are All Related illustrates the relationship between MAC addresses, data-link addresses, and the IEEE sublayers of the data link layer.
Figure: MAC Addresses, Data-Link Addresses, and the IEEE Sublayers of the Data Link Layer Are All Related
Figure: The MAC Address Contains a Unique Format of Hexadecimal Digits illustrates the MAC address format.
Figure: The MAC Address Contains a Unique Format of Hexadecimal Digits
Network Layer Addresses
Figure: Each Network Interface Must Be Assigned a Network Address for Each Protocol Supported
Hierarchical Versus Flat Address Space
Figure: Hierarchical and Flat Address Spaces Differ in Comparison Operations illustrates the difference between hierarchical and flat address spaces.
Figure: Hierarchical and Flat Address Spaces Differ in Comparison Operations
Addresses Versus Names
1. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - Used to transfer files over the internet using TCP/IP.
2. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) - Underlining protocol used by the World Wide Web. Allows Web servers and browsers to communicate with each other.
3. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) - Protocol used to send email messages between servers.
4. DNS (Domain Name Service) - An internet service that translates domain names, such as www.yahoo.com, into IP addresses.
5. TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) - Simplified version of the FTP protocol which has no security features.
6. NFS (Network File System) - Client/Server application designed by SUN MICROSYSTEMS to allow all network users to access files stored on different computer types.
7. Telnet - terminal emulation program that allows you to connect to a server and enter information and commands similar to if you were actually on the server terminal.
8. ASCII - a code for representing English characters as numbers.
9. EBCDIC (Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code) - IBM code for representing characters as numbers.
10. MIDI (Musical Instrument Device Interface) - adopted by the electronic music industry for controlling devices, such as synthesizers and sound cards, that emit music.
11. MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group) - the family of digital video compression standards and file formats developed by the ISO group.
12. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) - a lossy compression format for color images that reduces file size by 5% while losing some image detail.
13. SQL (Structured Query Language) - a standardized query language for requesting information from a database.
14. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) - allows a program on one computer execute a program on a server.
15. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) - enables two to establish a connection and exchange streams of data.
16. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) - offering a direct way to send and receive datagrams over an IP network with very few error recovery services.
17. IP (Internet Protocol) - specifies the format of packets and the addressing schemes.
18. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) - an extension of IP which supports packets containing error, control, and informational messages.
19. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) - used to convert an IP address to a physical address.
20. PING - a utility to check if an IP address is accessible.
21. Traceroute - utility that tracks a packet from your computer to an internet host showing how many hops and how long it took.
22. IEEE 802.2 - divides the data link layer into two sublayers -- the logical link control (LLC) layer and the media access control (MAC) layer.
23. 802.3 - Defines the MAC layer for bus networks that use CSMA/CD. This is the basis of the Ethernet standard.
24. 802.5 - Defines the MAC layer for token-ring networks.